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Preventing violence against children is critical in safeguarding the rights and well-being of children. Understanding the drivers, risk factors, and protective factors for different forms of violence against children is important to inform prevention strategies and interventions. Learn more about this topic by reading the resources provided on this page.

Celik, P. (2024). The effectiveness of school-based child sexual abuse prevention programmes among primary school-aged children: A systematic review. International Journal of Educational Research Open, 7, 100348.
Cody, C., Bovarnick, S., & Soares, C. (2024). Realising participation and protection rights when working with groups of young survivors of childhood sexual violence: A decade of learning. Child Protection and Practice, 2, 100018.
Fogarty, A., Brown, S., Gartland, D., McMahon, G., FitzPatrick, K., Seymour, M., Kimber, M., MacMillan, H., & Giallo, R. (2024). Patterns of intimate partner violence exposure across the first 10 years of life and children’s emotional-behavioural outcomes at 10 years. Child Abuse & Neglect, 153, 106814.
Harris, R. J., Channon, A. A., & Morgan, S. A. (2024). Childhood exposure to domestic violence: can global estimates on the scale of exposure be obtained using existing measures? Frontiers in Public Health, 12, 1181837.
Samms-Vaughan, M., Coore-Desai, C., Reece, J.-A., & Pellington, S. (2024). Epidemiology of violence against young children in Jamaica. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 1–10.
Seto, M. C., Roche, K., Rodrigues, N. C., Curry, S., & Letourneau, E. (2024). Evaluating Child Sexual Abuse Perpetration Prevention Efforts: A Systematic Review. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 1–22.
Obare, F., Odwe, G., Wado, Y., Kisaakye, P., Muthuri, S., Seruwagi, G., Fernandez, B., Ginestra, C., Kabiru, C., & Undie, C.-C. (2024). Highlights from the first-ever violence against children and youth survey conducted exclusively in a humanitarian setting. Child Abuse & Neglect, 106826.
Thomsen, L., Thompson, C., Ogilvie, J., McKillop, N., Hurren, E., Molnar, T., & Allard, T. (2024). Child Sexual Abuse Victimization Amongst Detained Adolescents and Incarcerated Young Adults: Findings from an Australian Population-Based Birth Cohort Study. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 1–20.
Stocco, C. S., Zubiolo, T. F. M., Beltrame, M. H. A., & Dell’Agnolo, C. M. (2024). Sexual violence against children and adolescents in Paraná State: geospatial analysis and main socioeconomic indicators. Jornal de Pediatria.
Bhatia, A., Lokot, M., Kenny, L., Mathpati, M., & Cislaghi, B. (2024). Honor, violence, and children: A systematic scoping review of global evidence. Child Abuse & Neglect, 151, 106642.
Cuartas, J., Salazar, A., Backhaus, S., Little, M. T., McCoy, D., Yoshikawa, H., Bass, M., Metheny, N., & Knaul, F. (2024). Strategies to Prevent Violence Against Children in the Home: A Systematic Review of Reviews. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15248380241247018.
Capaldi, M., Schatz, J., & Kavenagh, M. (2024). Child sexual abuse/exploitation and LGBTQI+ children: Context, links, vulnerabilities, gaps, challenges and priorities. Child Protection and Practice, 1, 100001.
Maternowska, M. C., Gould, C., Amisi, M. M., & van der Heyde, J. (2024). INSPIRE: Seven strategies for ending violence against children—exploring knowledge uptake, use and impact. Child Protection and Practice, 1, 100008.
Odwe, G., Muthuri, S., Onyango, F., Kisaakye, P., Seruwagi, G., Wado, Y., Kabiru, C., & Undie, C.-C. (2024). Disability, childhood experiences of violence and associated health outcomes in refugee settlements in Uganda. Child Protection and Practice, 100023.
Johnson, H. M., Block, S. D., Gonzales, J. E., Ramsey, M. G., Shockley, K. L., & Williams, L. M. (2024). Predictors of non-offending caregiver support in cases of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 149, 106650.
Sidi, A., Kiio, M., Mwangi, N., Olum, M., Githinji, G., Maina, K., Kithinji, C., Kaloki, F., Temmerman, M., & Manguro, G. (2024). Prevalence and correlates of depressive disorders in commercially sexual exploited children: A cross-sectional study in Mombasa, Kenya. Child Abuse & Neglect, 149, 106690.
Turner, E., Parkes, J., Nagasha, S. N., Naker, D., Nakuti, J., Namy, S., & Devries, K. (2024). Sexual violence through corporal punishment: Rethinking siloes in school violence prevention using feminist theory and data from Uganda. SSM - Qualitative Research in Health, 100413.
Woollett, N., Christofides, N., Franchino-Olsen, H., Silima, M., Fouche, A., & Meinck, F. (2024). “Children Are Like Vuvuzelas Always Ready to Blow”: Exploring How to Engage Young Children in Violence Research. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 08862605241230088.
tkarino. (2024, January 19). International Classification of Violence against Children (ICVAC). UNICEF DATA.
Puno, A., Kim, J., Bhatia, A., Jeong, J., & Kim, R. (2024). Violence Against Children, Self-Harm, and Suicidal Behaviors: A Pooled and Country-Specific Analysis of Eight Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Journal of Adolescent Health, S1054139X24001514.
Kavenagh, M., & Maternowska, M. C. (2024). Child sexual exploitation and abuse disclosure and help‐seeking: A glimpse of global South data. Child Abuse Review, 33(3), e2887.
Njagi, J. (2024). Scoping review to identify child sexual violence research gaps in low- and middle-income countries. Sexual Violence Research Initiative.
Naved, R. T., Antu, J. F., Parvin, K., & Ziaei, S. (2023). Multi-level analysis of the determinants of physical domestic violence against children using longitudinal data from MINIMat mother–child cohort in Bangladesh. Frontiers in Public Health, 11, 1185130.
Miedema, S. S., Stamatakis, C., Tracy, A., Hegle, J., Kamagate, M. F., McOwen, J., Augusto, A., Manuel, P., Coomer, R., Kambona, C., Ramphalla, P., Niolon, P., Patel, P., & Annor, F. B. (2023). Patterns of adverse childhood experiences and their associations with mental distress, substance use and sexual risk behaviors in Sub-Saharan Africa. Child Abuse & Neglect, 106494.
WeProtect Global Alliance. (2023, August 18). Global Threat Assessment 2023: Assessing the scale and scope of child sexual abuse online - WeProtect Global Alliance.
Moss, C., Smith, S. J., Kim, K., Hua, N., Noronha, N., Kavenagh, M., & Wekerle, C. (2023). A global systematic scoping review of literature on the sexual exploitation of boys. Child Abuse & Neglect, 142, 106244.
Amene, E. W., Annor, F. B., Gilbert, L. K., McOwen, J., Augusto, A., Manuel, P., N’gouanma Nobah, M. T. V., & Massetti, G. M. (2023). Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences in sub-Saharan Africa: A multicountry analysis of the Violence Against Children and Youth Surveys (VACS). Child Abuse & Neglect, 106353.
Ouma, S., Abbo, C., Natala, N., McCoy, M., & Kroupina, M. (2023). Victimization among adolescents of female sex workers: findings from the children of at-risk parents (CARP) study in Uganda. BMC Pediatrics, 23(1), 311.
Gao, S., Assink, M., Bi, C., & Chan, K. L. (2023). Child Maltreatment as a Risk Factor for Rejection Sensitivity: A Three-Level Meta-Analytic Review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 152483802311629.
Lee, J. Y., Yoon, S., Park, K., Radney, A., Shipe, S. L., & Pace, G. T. (2023). Father–Mother Co-Involvement in Child Maltreatment: Associations of Prior Perpetration, Parental Substance Use, Parental Medical Conditions, Inadequate Housing, and Intimate Partner Violence with Different Maltreatment Types. Children, 10(4), 707.
Pankowiak, A., Woessner, M. N., Parent, S., Vertommen, T., Eime, R., Spaaij, R., Harvey, J., & Parker, A. G. (2023). Psychological, Physical, and Sexual Violence Against Children in Australian Community Sport: Frequency, Perpetrator, and Victim Characteristics. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 38(3–4), 4338–4365.
Cénat, J. M., Dalexis, R. D., Clorméus, L. A., Lafontaine, M.-F., Guerrier, M., Michel, G., & Hébert, M. (2023). Lifetime and Child Sexual Violence, Risk Factors and Mental Health Correlates Among a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents and Young Adults in Haiti: A Public Health Emergency. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 38(3–4), 2778–2805.
Steele, B., Neelakantan, L., Jochim, J., Davies, L. M., Boyes, M., Franchino-Olsen, H., Dunne, M., & Meinck, F. (2023). Measuring Violence Against Children: A COSMIN Systematic Review of the Psychometric and Administrative Properties of Adult Retrospective Self-report Instruments on Child Abuse and Neglect. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 152483802211459.
Kita, S., Ochiai, K., Sato, Y., Akiyama, S., Abe, M., Tashita, K., Tanaka, H., Matsumoto, F., Hayashi, S., Kohashi, K., Tsujino, K., Uchiyama, K., Tsukamatsu, K., Ikeda, U., Ikeda, M., & Suzuki, H. (2023). Development of the Training Program on Child Abuse Prevention for Citizens (TCAP-C) and Its Effects and Acceptability: Community-Based Participatory Research. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(2), 1414.
Kewley, S., Mhlanga-Gunda, R., & Van Hout, M.-C. (2023). Preventing child sexual abuse before it occurs: examining the scale and nature of secondary public health prevention approaches. Journal of Sexual Aggression, 29(1), 1–33.
Attrash-Najjar, A., & Katz, C. (2023). Child Sexual Abuse Studies in Arab Societies: A Systematic Review and Directions for Future Research. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 24(3), 1300–1324.
Cuartas, J., Bhatia, A., Carter, D., Cluver, L., Coll, C., Draper, C. E., Donger, E., Gardner, F., Grueso, H., Herbert, B., Lachman, J., M’jid, N. M., Seidel, F., & Kelly, O. (2023). The climate crisis and violence against children. The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, S2352464223001372.
McAlpine, K., Dennis, R., Semwene, J., & Mziray, B. (2023). Understanding the lived experience of young adults who grew up in residential care centres in Tanzania & a Theory of Action to reorient care for vulnerable children. Citizens 4 Change, World Childhood, Pamoja Leo, Railway Children, Families & Futures Coalition of Tanzania.
Delany, A., October, L., & Mathews, S. (2023). Preventing violence against young children: A scoping review of interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Children’s Institute, University of Cape Town and Boston University Centre for Innovation in Social Work and Health.
Sharma, A. (2022). Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: Experiences of Men Survivors in India. The British Journal of Social Work, 52(8), 4588–4605.
Picchetti, V., Stamatakis, C., Annor, F. B., Massetti, G. M., & Hegle, J. (2022). Association between lifetime sexual violence victimization and selected health conditions and risk behaviors among 13-24-year-olds in Lesotho: Results from the Violence Against Children and Youth Survey (VACS), 2018. Child Abuse & Neglect, 134, 105916.
Nace, A., Maternowska, C., Fernandez, B., & Cravero, K. (2022). The Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS): Using VACS data to drive programmes and policies. Global Public Health, 17(11), 2807–2825.
Bhatia, A., Turner, E., Akim, A., Mirembe, A., Nakuti, J., Parkes, J., Datzberger, S., Nagawa, R., Kung’u, M., Babu, H., Kabuti, R., Kimani, J., Beattie, T. S., d’Oliveira, A. F., Rishal, P., Nyakuwa, R., Bell, S., Bukuluki, P., Cislaghi, B., … Devries, K. (2022). Remote methods for research on violence against women and children: lessons and challenges from research during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMJ Global Health, 7(11), e008460.
Qu, X., Shen, X., Xia, R., Wu, J., Lao, Y., Chen, M., Gan, Y., & Jiang, C. (2022). The prevalence of sexual violence against female children: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Child Abuse & Neglect, 131, 105764.
Pacheco, C. R., & Scheeringa, M. S. (2022). Post-Traumatic Stress and Autobiographical Memory Accuracy in Young Children: Traumatic Events versus Stressful and Pleasant Events. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 31(6), 695–714.
Sharma, A. (2022). Men survivors’ perspectives on impact of child sexual abuse. Children and Youth Services Review, 137, 106485.
Velloza, J., Davies, L., Ensminger, A., Theofelus, F. M., Andjamba, H., Kamuingona, R., Nakuta, J., Uiras, W., Massetti, G., Coomer, R., Wolkon, A., Forster, N., & O’Malley, G. (2022). Disclosure and help-seeking behaviors related to sexual and physical violence in childhood and adolescence: Results from the Namibia Violence Against Children and Youth Survey. Child Abuse & Neglect, 128, 105624.
Neelakantan, L., Fry, D., Florian, L., Silion, D., Filip, M., Thabeng, M., Te, K., Sunglao, J. A., Lu, M., Ward, C. L., Baban, A., Jocson, R. M., Alampay, L., & Meinck, F. (2022). “What does that mean?”: The content validity of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool - Child version (ICAST-C) in Romania, South Africa, and the Philippines. Child Abuse & Neglect, 134, 105869.
Al-Mohannadi, A. S., Al-Harahsheh, S., Atari, S., Jilani, N., Al-Hail, G., & Sigodo, K. (2022). Addressing violence against children: A case review in the state of Qatar. Frontiers in Public Health, 10, 859325.
Howard, A. L., Pals, S., Walker, B., Benevides, R., Massetti, G. M., Oluoch, R. P., Ogbanufe, O., Marcelin, L. H., Cela, T., Mapoma, C. C., Gonese, E., Msungama, W., Magesa, D., Kayange, A., Galloway, K., Apondi, R., Wasula, L., Mugurungi, O., Ncube, G., … Patel, P. (2021). Forced Sexual Initiation and Early Sexual Debut and Associated Risk Factors and Health Problems Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women - Violence Against Children and Youth Surveys, Nine PEPFAR Countries, 2007-2018. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 70(47), 1629–1634.
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