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Violence against women and violence against children, globally, are huge problems impacting millions of people, with potentially harmful, long-lasting effects on the lives of survivors, communities and the social and economic development of countries. It is imperative that services, programmes and policies are responsive to survivors needs. The failure to respond effectively can have long lasting physical, mental, social and economic impacts for the survivors and their families. Learn more about what research says on response programmes to violence against women in this section.

Vahedi, L., Stark, L., Ding, R., Masboungi, C., Erskine, D., Poulton, C., & Seff, I. (2024). A qualitative investigation of gender-based violence prevention and response using digital technologies in low resource settings and refugee populations. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 15(1), 2347106. https://doi.org/10.1080/20008066.2024.2347106
Schalk, D., & Fernandes, C. (2024). How Health Professionals Identify and Respond to Perpetrators of Domestic and Family Violence in a Hospital Setting: A Scoping Review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15248380241246784. https://doi.org/10.1177/15248380241246783
Shrestha, R., Sapkota, D., Sarraf, R. R., Mehra, D., Ekström, A. M., & Deuba, K. (2024). Perceptions on violence against women and its impacts on mental health and response mechanisms among community-based stakeholders: a qualitative study from Nepal. BMC Women’s Health, 24(1), 258. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-024-03064-5
Keynejad, R. C., Boardman-Pretty, T., Barber, S., Tweed, J., Forshall, E., Edwards, A., Shotton, J., & Wilson, C. A. (2024). Detection of and response to gender-based violence: a quality improvement project across three secondary mental health services in London. BJPsych Bulletin, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjb.2024.34
Lewis, N. V., Kalichman, B., Azeredo, Y. N., Bacchus, L. J., & d’Oliveira, A. F. (2024). Ethical challenges in global research on health system responses to violence against women: a qualitative study of policy and professional perspectives. BMC Medical Ethics, 25(1), 32. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12910-024-01034-y
Michelis, I., Makepeace, J., & Reis, C. (2024). Who Is Centered in the Humanitarian Response to Gender-Based Violence? A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Survivor-Centered Approach. Violence Against Women, 10778012241231784. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778012241231783
Islam, M. J., Suzuki, M., & Mazerolle, P. (2024). Police responses to intimate partner violence incidents involving children: Exploring variations in actions and concerns in an Australian jurisdiction. Child Abuse & Neglect, 147, 106568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2023.106568
Bacchus, L. J., Colombini, M., Pearson, I., Gevers, A., Stöckl, H., & Guedes, A. C. (2024). Interventions that prevent or respond to intimate partner violence against women and violence against children: a systematic review. The Lancet Public Health, 9(5), e326–e338. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(24)00048-3
Van Gelder, N. E., Ligthart, S. A., Van Rosmalen-Nooijens, K. A., Prins, J. B., & Oertelt-Prigione, S. (2023). Effectiveness of the SAFE eHealth Intervention for Women Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse: Randomized Controlled Trial, Quantitative Process Evaluation, and Open Feasibility Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 25, e42641. https://doi.org/10.2196/42641
Logie, C. H., Okumu, M., Loutet, M., Berry, I., McAlpine, A., Lukone, S. O., Kisubi, N., Mwima, S., & Kyambadde, P. (2023). A Participatory Comic Book Workshop to Improve Youth-Friendly Post-Rape Care in a Humanitarian Context in Uganda: A Case Study. Global Health: Science and Practice, 11(3), e2200088. https://doi.org/10.9745/GHSP-D-22-00088
Clery, M. J., Olsen, E., Marcovitch, H., Goodall, H., Gentry, J., Wheatley, M. A., Jackson, N., & Evans, D. P. (2023). Safe Discharge Needs Following Emergency Care for Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Assault, and Sex Trafficking. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 24(3). https://doi.org/10.5811/WESTJEM.59072
Schneider, L. T. (2023). Rape, ritual, rupture, and repair: Decentering Euro‐American logics of trauma and healing in an analytic autoethnography of the five years after my rape in Sierra Leone. Ethos, etho.12392. https://doi.org/10.1111/etho.12392
Allison, A., Weerahandi, A., Johnson, T., Koshan, J., Bagstad, G., Ferreira, C., Jenney, A., Krut, B. A., & Wollny, K. (2023). A Scoping Review on the Use of Experiential Learning in Professional Education on Intimate Partner Violence. Journal of Family Violence, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-023-00552-4
Yirgu, R., Wondimagegnehu, A., Qian, J., Milkovich, R., Zimmerman, L. A., Decker, M. R., Glass, N., Seid, F., Zekarias, L., & Wood, S. N. (2023). Needs and unmet needs for support services for recently pregnant intimate partner violence survivors in Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. BMC Public Health, 23(1), 725. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-023-15634-7
Rockowitz, S., Wagner, K., Cooper, R., Stevens, L., Davies, K., Woodhams, J., Kanja, W., & Flowe, H. D. (2023). A Systematic Review of Criminal Justice Initiatives to Strengthen the Criminal Investigation and Prosecution of Sexual Violence in East Africa. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 152483802311656. https://doi.org/10.1177/15248380231165694
Hollingdrake, O., Saadi, N., Alban Cruz, A., & Currie, J. (2023). Qualitative study of the perspectives of women with lived experience of domestic and family violence on accessing healthcare. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 79(4), 1353–1366. https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.15316
Miyamoto, S., Wright, E. N., Thiede, E., Perkins, D. F., Bittner, C., & Dorn, L. (2023). Multidisciplinary Perspectives on the Implementation of a Comprehensive Sexual Assault Telehealth Program in Rural Communities: A Qualitative Study. Violence Against Women, 107780122311594. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778012231159413
Arora, S., Bhate-Deosthali, P., Rege, S., Amin, A., & Meyer, S. R. (2023). Healthcare Providers’ Perceptions and Experiences of Training to Respond to Violence against Women: Results from a Qualitative Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(4), 3606. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20043606
De Schacht, C., Paulo, P., Van Rompaey, S., Graves, E., Prigmore, H. L., Bravo, M., Melo, F., Malinha, J. E., Correia, D., Cossa, R., Chele, E., & Audet, C. (2023). Health care services for survivors of gender-based violence: a community and clinic-based intervention in Zambézia province, Mozambique. AIDS Care, 35(1), 16–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2022.2067313
Angelucci, M., Heath, R., & Noble, E. (2023). Multifaceted programs targeting women in fragile settings: Evidence from the Democratic Republic of Congo. Journal of Development Economics, 164, 103146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdeveco.2023.103146
Fanslow, J. L. (2023). Integrating health responses to family adversity and intimate partner violence is crucial. The Lancet Public Health, 8(7), e478–e479. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2468-2667(23)00124-X
Flynn, C., Marchand, I., Cribb, M., Couturier, P., Petrucci, G., Godin, J., Gilbert, M., Bouchard, A.-S., Fortin-Otis, E., Maheu, J., Bigaouette, M., Gauthier, M.-A., Moisan, A., Chevrette, C., & Cousineau, M.-M. (2023). When social responses for violence against women are insufficient to prevent homelessness - A perspective from Quebec (Canada). Women’s Studies International Forum, 99, 102742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wsif.2023.102742
Mmari, K., Gayles, J., Lundgren, R., Barker, K., Austrian, K., Levtov, R., Kato-Wallace, J., Van Reeuwijk, M., Richardson, L., Green, J., Kågestan, A. E., & Ramaiya, A. (2023). Implementing Interventions to Address Gender and Power Inequalities in Early Adolescence: Utilizing a Theory of Change to Assess Conditions for Success. Journal of Adolescent Health, 73(1), S5–S14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2022.10.032
Otterman, G., Nurmatov, U., Akhlaq, A., Naughton, A., Kemp, A. M., Korhonen, L., Jud, A., Vollmer Sandholm, M. J., Mora-Theuer, E., Moultrie, S., Chalumeau, M., Karst, W. A., & Greenbaum, J. (2023). Appraisal of published guidelines in European countries addressing the clinical care of childhood sexual abuse: protocol for a systematic review. BMJ Open, 13(4), e064008. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2022-064008
Gordon, R., Cheeseman, N., Rockowitz, S., Stevens, L. M., & Flowe, H. D. (2022). Government responses to gender-based violence during COVID-19. Frontiers in Global Women’s Health, 3, 857345. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgwh.2022.857345
Sukhtankar, S., Kruks-Wisner, G., & Mangla, A. (2022). Policing in patriarchy: An experimental evaluation of reforms to improve police responsiveness to women in India. Science, 377(6602), 191–198. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abm7387
Silva, T., Agampodi, T., Evans, M., Knipe, D., Rathnayake, A., & Rajapakse, T. (2022). Barriers to help-seeking from healthcare professionals amongst women who experience domestic violence - a qualitative study in Sri Lanka. BMC Public Health, 22(1), 721. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-022-13116-w
Philbrick, W., Milnor, J., Deshmukh, M., & Mechael, P. (2022). Information and communications technology use to prevent and respond to sexual and gender‐based violence in low‐ and middle‐income countries: An evidence and gap map. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 18(4), e1277. https://doi.org/10.1002/cl2.1277
Gaddappa, S., Deshpande, S., Gaikwad, N., Rokade, J., Prabhu, P., Arora, S., & Rege, S. (2021). Strengthening Health Systems’ Response to Violence Against Women in Three Tertiary Health Facilities of Maharashtra. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India, 71(Suppl 2), 90–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13224-021-01596-6
Sikder, S. S., Ghoshal, R., Bhate-Deosthali, P., Jaishwal, C., & Roy, N. (2021). Mapping the health systems response to violence against women: key learnings from five LMIC settings (2015-2020). BMC Women’s Health, 21(1), 360. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01499-8
Kalra, N., Hooker, L., Reisenhofer, S., Di Tanna, G. L., & García-Moreno, C. (2021). Training healthcare providers to respond to intimate partner violence against women. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 5(5), CD012423. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012423.pub2
Worthen, M. G. F., & Wallace, S. A. (2021). “Why Should I, the One Who Was Raped, Be Forced to Take Training in What Sexual Assault Is?” Sexual Assault Survivors’ and Those Who Know Survivors’ Responses to a Campus Sexual Assault Education Program. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(5–6), NP2640–NP2674. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260518768571
Kirkner, A., Lorenz, K., & Ullman, S. E. (2021). Recommendations for Responding to Survivors of Sexual Assault: A Qualitative Study of Survivors and Support Providers. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(3–4), 1005–1028. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260517739285
WHO. (2021). Responding to violence against women and children during COVID-19: impact on service provision, strategies and actions in the WHO European Region. WHO. https://www.who.int/europe/publications/i/item/9789289056403
McAlpine, A., Bacchus, L. J., Muuo, S. W., Muthuri, S. K., Bangha, M., Izugbara, C., Franchi, G., Hess, T., Spangaro, J., Pearson, R., & Hossain, M. (2020). Research challenges in evaluating gender-based violence response services in a refugee camp. Global Health Action, 13(1), 1820713. https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2020.1820713
Muuo, S., Muthuri, S. K., Mutua, M. K., McAlpine, A., Bacchus, L. J., Ogego, H., Bangha, M., Hossain, M., & Izugbara, C. (2020). Barriers and facilitators to care-seeking among survivors of gender-based violence in the Dadaab refugee complex. Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters, 28(1), 1722404. https://doi.org/10.1080/26410397.2020.1722404
Wild, K., Gomes, L., Fernandes, A., de Araujo, G., McDonald, S., & Taft, A. (2020). Security from above and below: A critical ethnography of the health response to violence against women in Timor-Leste. Social Science & Medicine (1982), 260, 113191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113191
Erskine, D. (2020). Not Just Hotlines and Mobile Phones: Gender-based violence service provision during COVID-19. UNICEF. https://www.unicef.org/documents/gender-based-violence-service-provision-during-covid-19
Meyer, S. R., Rege, S., Avalaskar, P., Deosthali, P., García-Moreno, C., & Amin, A. (2020). Strengthening health systems response to violence against women: protocol to test approaches to train health workers in India. Pilot and Feasibility Studies, 6, 63. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40814-020-00609-x
Bartels, S. A., Michael, S., Vahedi, L., Collier, A., Kelly, J., Davison, C., Scott, J., Parmar, P., & Geara, P. (2019). SenseMaker® as a monitoring and evaluation tool to provide new insights on gender-based violence programs and services in Lebanon. Evaluation and Program Planning, 77, 101715. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2019.101715
Morse, S. M., & Decker, M. R. (2019). Response to sexual assault in Bogotá, Colombia: A qualitative evaluation of health providers’ readiness and role in policy implementation. Health Care for Women International, 40(11), 1249–1267. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399332.2019.1578776
Wild, K. J., Gomes, L., Fernandes, A., de Araujo, G., Madeira, I., da Conceicao Matos, L., McDonald, S., & Taft, A. (2019). Responding to violence against women: A qualitative study with midwives in Timor-Leste. Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives, 32(4), e459–e466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2018.10.008
Leddy, A. M., Weiss, E., Yam, E., & Pulerwitz, J. (2019). Gender-based violence and engagement in biomedical HIV prevention, care and treatment: a scoping review. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 897. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7192-4
Njelesani, J. (2019). “A child who is hidden has no rights”: Responses to violence against children with disabilities. Child Abuse & Neglect, 89, 58–69. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.12.024
Wild, K. J., Gomes, L., Fernandes, A., de Araujo, G., Madeira, I., da Conceicao Matos, L., McDonald, S., & Taft, A. (2019). Responding to violence against women: a qualitative study with midwives in Timor-Leste. Women and Birth, 32(4), e459–e466. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2018.10.008
Otero-García, L., Briones-Vozmediano, E., Vives-Cases, C., García-Quinto, M., Sanz-Barbero, B., & Goicolea, I. (2018). A qualitative study on primary health care responses to intimate partner violence during the economic crisis in Spain. European Journal of Public Health, 28(6), 1000–1005. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/cky095
Lilleston, P., Winograd, L., Ahmed, S., Salamé, D., Al Alam, D., Stoebenau, K., Michelis, I., & Palekar Joergensen, S. (2018). Evaluation of a mobile approach to gender-based violence service delivery among Syrian refugees in Lebanon. Health Policy and Planning, 33(7), 767–776. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czy050
Mannell, J., Seyed-Raeisy, I., Burgess, R., & Campbell, C. (2018). The implications of community responses to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. PLOS ONE, 13(5), e0196584. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196584
Ryan, J., Esau, M. V., & Roman, N. V. (2018). Legislative response to family violence in South Africa: A family centered perspective. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 42, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2018.06.009
Lanthier, S., Du Mont, J., & Mason, R. (2018). Responding to Delayed Disclosure of Sexual Assault in Health Settings: A Systematic Review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 19(3), 251–265. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838016659484
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