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Technology Facilitated Gender Based Violence (TFGBV) is an act that is committed using information communication technologies or other digital tools which results in physical, sexual, psychological, social, political or economic harm or other infringements of rights and freedoms. Learn more about this topic by reading the resources provided on this page.

Quayle, E., Larkin, A., Schwannauer, M., Varese, F., Cartwright, K., Chitsabesan, P., Green, V., Radford, G., Richards, C., Shafi, S., Whelan, P., Chan, C., Hewins, W., Newton, A., Niebauer, E., Sandys, M., Ward, J., & Bucci, S. (2024). Experiences of a digital health intervention for young people exposed to technology assisted sexual abuse: a qualitative study. BMC Psychiatry, 24, 237. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-024-05605-6
Winkle, K., & Mulvihill, N. (2024). Anticipating the Use of Robots in Domestic Abuse: A Typology of Robot Facilitated Abuse to Support Risk Assessment and Mitigation in Human-Robot Interaction. Proceedings of the 2024 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, 781–790. https://doi.org/10.1145/3610977.3634938
Jurasz, O. (2024, March). Online violence against women: A Four Nations study [Other]. https://oro.open.ac.uk/96398/
UN Women. (2024). Action Coalitions on Gender Based Violence & Technology and Innovation for Gender Equality: Addressing gaps to prevent and eliminate technology facilitated gender-based violence against women and girls. UN Women. https://forum.generationequality.org/sites/default/files/2024-01/GBV-TechnologyFacilitated_11JAN24.pdf
Equality Now. (2024). Briefing paper: Deepfake image-based sexual abuse, tech-facilitated sexual exploitation and the law. Alliance for Universal Digital Rights. https://equalitynow.storage.googleapis.com/wp-content/uploads/2024/01/17084238/EN-AUDRi-Briefing-paper-deepfake-06.pdf
Sheikh, M. M. R., & Rogers, M. M. (2023). Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence and Abuse in Low and Middle-Income Countries: A Scoping Review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 15248380231191188. https://doi.org/10.1177/15248380231191189
Douglas, H., Tanczer, L., McLachlan, F., & Harris, B. (2023). Policing Technology-Facilitated Domestic Abuse (TFDA): Views of Service Providers in Australia and the United Kingdom. Journal of Family Violence. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-023-00619-2
Halpin, M., Richard, N., Preston, K., Gosse, M., & Maguire, F. (2023). Men who hate women: The misogyny of involuntarily celibate men. New Media & Society, 146144482311767. https://doi.org/10.1177/14614448231176777
Oliver, C., Cummings, S., Puiras, E., & Mazmanian, D. (2023). Technology-Facilitated Sexual Harassment Against Women and Psychological Dysfunction: A Test of Objectification Theory. Violence Against Women, 107780122311779. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778012231177998
Kim, S., Choi, E., & Champion, J. D. (2023). Technology-facilitated Sexual Violence in South Korea: A Content Analysis of a Website for Victims. Violence Against Women, 107780122311727. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778012231172712
Cookson, T. P., Fuentes, L., Zulver, J. M., & Nelson, A. (2023). Fit for purpose? Assessing the accessibility, theory of action, and accountability of digital technology interventions for sexual and gender-based violence prevention and response. Gender, Technology and Development, 27(2), 184–206. https://doi.org/10.1080/09718524.2023.2182035
Afrouz, R. (2023). The Nature, Patterns and Consequences of Technology-Facilitated Domestic Abuse: A Scoping Review. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 24(2), 913–927. https://doi.org/10.1177/15248380211046752
UNFPA. (2023). Guidance on the Safe and Ethical Use of Technology to Address Gender-based Violence and Harmful Practices: Implementation Summary. UNFPA. https://www.unfpa.org/publications/implementation-summary-safe-ethical-use-technology-gbv-harmful-practices
Bansal, V., Rezwan, M., Iyer, M., Leasure, E., Roth, C., Pal, P., & Hinson, L. (2023). A Scoping Review of Technology-Facilitated Gender-Based Violence in Low- and Middle-Income Countries Across Asia. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 15248380231154614. https://doi.org/10.1177/15248380231154614
Srivastava, A., Rusow, J., Schrager, S. M., Stephenson, R., & Goldbach, J. T. (2023). Digital Sexual Violence and Suicide Risk in a National Sample of Sexual Minority Adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 38(3–4), 4443–4458. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605221116317
Straw, I., & Tanczer, L. (2023). Safeguarding patients from technology-facilitated abuse in clinical settings: A narrative review. PLOS Digital Health, 2(1), e0000089. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pdig.0000089
Sciacca, B., Mazzone, A., Loftsson, M., O’Higgins Norman, J., & Foody, M. (2023). Nonconsensual Dissemination of Sexual Images Among Adolescents: Associations With Depression and Self-Esteem. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 38(15–16), 9438–9464. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605231165777
UNFPA, & Wilson Center. (2023). 2022 Global Symposium on Technology-facilitated Gender-based Violence Results: Building a Common Pathway. UNFPA. https://www.unfpa.org/publications/2022-global-symposium-technology-facilitated-gender-based-violence-results-building
UNFPA, Argentine Gender Editors Network, & Defensoría del Público. (2023). El Abordaje Mediático de la Violencia de Género Digital: Claves Para Una Comunicación Responsable. UNFPA. https://argentina.unfpa.org/es/publications/el-abordaje-medi%C3%A1tico-de-la-violencia-de-g%C3%A9nero-digital-claves-para-una-comunicaci%C3%B3n
University of Melbourne, & UNFPA. (2023). Measuring technology-facilitated gender-based violence. A discussion paper. University of Melbourne and UNFPA. https://www.unfpa.org/publications/measuring-technology-facilitated-gender-based-violence-discussion-paper
UN Women, & World Health Organization. (2023). Technology-facilitated violence against women: Taking stock of evidence and data collection. UN Women. https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2023/04/technology-facilitated-violence-against-women-taking-stock-of-evidence-and-data-collection
UN Women, & World Health Organization. (2023). The state of evidence and data collection on technology-facilitated violence against women. UN Women. https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2023/04/brief-the-state-of-evidence-and-data-collection-on-technology-facilitated-violence-against-women
Dolev-Cohen, M., Nezer, I., & Zumt, A. A. (2022). A Qualitative Examination of School Counselors’ Experiences of Sextortion Cases of Female Students in Israel. Sexual Abuse, 107906322211459. https://doi.org/10.1177/10790632221145925
Dahlqvist, H., Svensson, Å., & Gillander Gådin, K. (2022). Co-occurrence of online and offline bullying and sexual harassment among youth in Sweden: Implications for studies on victimization and health a short communication. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 81(1), 2130362. https://doi.org/10.1080/22423982.2022.2130362
Karasavva, V., & Forth, A. (2022). Personality, Attitudinal, and Demographic Predictors of Non-consensual Dissemination of Intimate Images. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37(21–22), NP19265–NP19289. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605211043586
Chan, E. (2022). Technology-Facilitated Gender-Based Violence, Hate Speech, and Terrorism: A Risk Assessment on the Rise of the Incel Rebellion in Canada. Violence Against Women, 10778012221125496. https://doi.org/10.1177/10778012221125495
Schokkenbroek, J. M., Ouytsel, J. V., Hardyns, W., & Ponnet, K. (2022). Adults’ Online and Offline Psychological Intimate Partner Violence Experiences. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 37(15–16), NP14656–NP14671. https://doi.org/10.1177/08862605211015217
Alsawalqa, R. O., & Alrawashdeh, M. N. (2022). The role of patriarchal structure and gender stereotypes in cyber dating abuse: A qualitative examination of male perpetrators experiences. The British Journal of Sociology, 73(3), 587–606. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-4446.12946
Champion, A. R., Oswald, F., Khera, D., & Pedersen, C. L. (2022). Examining the Gendered Impacts of Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence: A Mixed Methods Approach. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 51(3), 1607–1624. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-021-02226-y
Lim, S. (2022). The Hidden Codes that Shape Our Expression: Understanding How Social Media Algorithms Obstruct Feminist Expression and How Malaysian Women Navigate the Challenges. KRYSS Network. https://firn.genderit.org/research/hidden-codes-shape-our-expression-understanding-how-social-media-algorithms-obstruct
Venturini, J. (2022). Technology-facilitated Gender-based Violence: Rights-based Regulation. UNFPA and Wilson Center. https://www.unfpa.org/resources/technology-facilitated-gender-based-violence-rights-based-regulation
Zagloul, N. M., Farghaly, R. M., ELKhatib, H., Issa, S. Y., & El-Zoghby, S. M. (2022). Technology facilitated sexual violence: a comparative study between working and non-working females in Egypt before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 12(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-022-00278-2
Paudel, S., & Shakya, S. (2021, December 1). Detection of online intimate partner violence in Nepali using artificial intelligence. SVRI Blog. https://www.svri.org/detection-of-online-intimate-partner-violence-in-nepali-using-artificial-intelligence/
Walker, K., Sleath, E., Hatcher, R. M., Hine, B., & Crookes, R. L. (2021). Nonconsensual Sharing of Private Sexually Explicit Media Among University Students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 36(17–18), NP9078–NP9108. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260519853414
Williams, D. J., Arntfield, M., Schaal, K., & Vincent, J. (2021). Wanting sex and willing to kill: Examining demographic and cognitive characteristics of violent “involuntary celibates.” Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 39(4), 386–401. https://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2512
Brown, C., & Hegarty, K. (2021). Development and validation of the TAR Scale: A measure of technology-facilitated abuse in relationships. Computers in Human Behavior Reports, 3, 100059. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chbr.2021.100059
Alsawalqa, R. O. (2021). Evaluating Female Experiences of Electronic Dating Violence in Jordan: Motivations, Consequences, and Coping Strategies. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 719702. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.719702
Rebollo-Catalan, A., & Mayor-Buzon, V. (2020). Adolescent Bystanders Witnessing Cyber Violence Against Women and Girls: What They Observe and How They Respond. Violence Against Women, 26(15–16), 2024–2040. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801219888025
Henry, N., Flynn, A., & Powell, A. (2020). Technology-Facilitated Domestic and Sexual Violence: A Review. Violence Against Women, 26(15–16), 1828–1854. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801219875821
Reed, E., Wong, A., & Raj, A. (2020). Cyber Sexual Harassment: A Summary of Current Measures and Implications for Future Research. Violence Against Women, 26(12–13), 1727–1740. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801219880959
Hill, C., & Johnson, H. (2020). Online Interpersonal Victimization as a Mechanism of Social Control of Women: An Empirical Examination. Violence Against Women, 26(12–13), 1681–1700. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801219870608
Kardefelt-Winther, D., & Maternowska, C. (2020). Addressing violence against children online and offline. Nature Human Behaviour, 4(3), 227–230. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-019-0791-3
Powell, A., & Henry, N. (2019). Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence Victimization: Results From an Online Survey of Australian Adults. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 34(17), 3637–3665. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260516672055
Hinson, L., O’Brien-Milne, L., Mueller, J., Bansal, V., Wandera, N., & Bankar, S. (2019). Defining and measuring technology-facilitated gender-based violence (No. Brief). International Center for Research on Women. http://www.svri.org/sites/default/files/attachments/2019-03-25/ICRW_TFGBVMarketing_Brief_v3_WebReady_0.pdf
Reyns, B. W., & Fisher, B. S. (2018). The Relationship Between Offline and Online Stalking Victimization: A Gender-Specific Analysis. Violence and Victims, 33(4), 769–786. https://doi.org/10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-17-00121
Henry, N., & Powell, A. (2018). Technology-Facilitated Sexual Violence: A Literature Review of Empirical Research. Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 19(2), 195–208. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838016650189
Aghtaie, N., Larkins, C., Barte, C., Stanley, N., Wood, M., & Øverlien, C. (2018). Interpersonal violence and abuse in young people’s relationships in five European countries: online and offline normalisation of heteronormativity. Journal of Gender-Based Violence, 2(2), 293–310. https://doi.org/10.1332/239868018X15263879270302
Brown, C., & Hegarty, K. (2018). Digital dating abuse measures: A critical review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 40, 44–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2018.03.003
Hinson, L., Mueller, J., O’Brien-Milne, L., & Wandera, N. (2018). Technology-facilitated gender-based violence: What is it, and how do we measure it? International Center for Research on Women. https://www.icrw.org/publications/technology-facilitated-gender-based-violence-what-is-it-and-how-do-we-measure-it/
Álvarez-García, D., Núñez, J. C., Barreiro-Collazo, A., & García, T. (2017). Validation of the Cybervictimization Questionnaire (CYVIC) for adolescents. Computers in Human Behavior, 70, 270–281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.01.007
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